Chemistry in Everyday Life



1   Why do we need to classify drugs in different ways?

Solution :

The classification of drugs and the reasons for classification are as follows: (i) $\text{On the basis of pharmacological effect:}$$\\$ This classification provides doctors the whole range of drugs available for the treatment of a particular type of problem. Hence, such a classification is very useful to doctors.$\\$ (ii) $\text{On the basis of drug action:}$$\\$ This classification is based on the action of a drug on a particular biochemical process. Thus, this classification is important.$\\$ (iii) $\text{On the basis of chemical structure:}$$\\$ This classification provides the range of drugs sharing common structural features and often having similar pharmacological activity.$\\$ (iv) $\text{On the basis of molecular targets:}$$\\$ This classification provides medicinal chemists the drugs having the same mechanism of action on targets. Hence, it is the most useful to medicinal chemists.

2   Explain the term target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry.

Solution :

In medicinal chemistry, drug targets refer to the key molecules involved in certain metabolic pathways that result in specific diseases. Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are examples of drug targets.$\\$ Drugs are chemical agents designed to inhibit these target molecules by binding with the active sites of the key molecules.

3   Name the macromolecules that are chosen as drug targets.

Solution :

The macromolecules chosen as drug targets are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

4   Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors?

Solution :

A medicine can bind to more than one receptor site. Thus, a medicine may be toxic for some receptor sites. Further, in most cases, medicines cause harmful effects when taken in higher doses than recommended. As a result, medicines may be poisonous in such cases. Hence, medicines should not be taken without consulting doctors.

5   Define the term chemotherapy.

Solution :

The use of chemicals for therapeutic effect is called chemotherapy. For example: the use of chemicals in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases