# Force and Laws of Motion

## Science

### NCERT

1   Which of the following has more inertia:$\\$ (a) a rubber ball and a stone of the same size?$\\$ (b) a bicycle and a train?$\\$ (c) a five-rupees coin and a one-rupee coin?

##### Solution :

Inertia is the measure of mass of the body. The greater is the mass of the body; the greater is its inertia and vice-versa.$\\$ (a) Mass of a stone is more than the mass of a rubber ball for the same size. Hence, inertia of the stone is greater than that of a rubber ball.$\\$ (b) Mass of a train is more than the mass of a bicycle. Hence, inertia of the train is greater than that of the bicycle.$\\$ (c) Mass of a five rupee coin is more than that of a one-rupee coin. Hence, inertia of the five rupee coin is greater than that of the one-rupee coin.

2   In the following example, try to identify the number of times the velocity of the ball changes: “A football player kicks a football to another player of his team who kicks the football towards the goal. The goalkeeper of the opposite team collects the football and kicks it towards a player of his own team”. Also identify the agent supplying the force in each case.

##### Solution :

The velocity of the ball changes four times.$\\$ As a football player kicks the football, its speed changes from zero to a certain value.$\\$ As a result, the velocity of the ball gets changed. In this case, the player applied a force to change the velocity of the ball. Another player kicks the ball towards the goal post. As a result, the direction of the ball gets changed. Therefore, its velocity also changes. In this case, the player applied a force to change the velocity of the ball. The goalkeeper collects the ball. In other words, the ball comes to rest. Thus, its speed reduces to zero from a certain value. The velocity of the ball has changed. In this case, the goalkeeper applied an opposite force to stop/change the velocity of the ball. The goalkeeper kicks the ball towards his team players. Hence, the speed of the ball increases from zero to a certain value. Hence, its velocity changes once again. In this case, the goalkeeper applied a force to change the velocity of the ball.

3   Explain why some of the leaves may get detached from a tree if we vigorously shake its branch.

##### Solution :

Some leaves of a tree get detached when we shake its branches vigorously. This is because when the branches of a tree are shaken, it moves to and fro, but its leaves tend to remain at rest. This is because the inertia of the leaves tend to resist the to and fro motion. Due to this reason, the leaves fall down from the tree when shaken vigorously.

4   Why do you fall in the forward direction when a moving bus brakes to a stop and fall backwards when it accelerates from rest?

##### Solution :

In a moving bus, a passenger moves with the bus due to inertia of motion. As the driver applies brakes, the bus comes to rest. But, the passenger tries to maintain his state of motion. As a result, a forward force is exerted on him. Similarly, the passenger tends to fall backwards when the bus accelerates from rest. This is because when the bus accelerates, the inertia of the passenger tends to oppose the forward motion of the bus. Hence, the passenger tends to fall backwards when the bus accelerates forward.

5   If action is always equal to the reaction, explain how a horse can pull a cart.

##### Solution :

A horse pushes the ground with foot in the backward direction. According to Newton’s third law of motion, a reaction force is exerted by the Earth on the horse in the forward direction. As a result, the cart moves forward.